Yacht Design School – Lesson 12/13

Basic Principles of Material and Structural Analysis, Testing & Scantlings Rule Development

Revised 02/17/2015 – Copyright 2015


Books Recommended for Relevance to These Lessons

Composite Materials Handbook
Volume 1:  Polymer Matrix Composites, Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Material, MIL-HDBK-17-1F
                    Volume 2:  Polymer Matrix Composites Materials Properties, MIL-HDBK-17-2F
                    Volume3:  Polymer Matrix Composites Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis, MIL-HDBK-17-3F
                    Volume4:  Metal Matrix Composites, MIL-HDBK-17-4A

    Volume5:  Ceramic Matrix Composites, MIL-HDBK-5

Desktop Engineering (monthly free subscription www.deskeng.com )

Engineering Mathematics by K.A. Stroud & Dexter J. Booth

High Performance Composites (bi-monthly free subscription www.compositesworld.com )

Machinery’s Handbook published by Industrial Press

Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers by Avallone & Baumeister

Marks’ Mechanics by Larry Silverberg & James P. Thrower

Mechanics of Composite Structures by Laslo P. Kollar & George S. Springer
                Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain
by Warren C. Young & Richard G. Budynas

Wood Handbook – Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Products Laboratory

(This book may be downloaded in .pdf format at http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr113/fplgtr113.htm

www.efunda.com for materials and engineering research

www.matweb.com for materials properties research


Tools for This Lesson

Load Cell and Display (your own or access to one) www.omega.com 

Test Jig (your own or access to one) as described in these lessons

The Pressure Strain and Force Handbook by www.omega.com

Complete Automation Handbook and Encyclopedia by www.omegamation.com

The Laminator by www.thelaminator.net (a $29 program to analyze composite laminates.  This program is required.

Scan&Solve (a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) plug-in for the Rhinoceros(r) (Rhino) design program) by Intact Solutions LLC.  The educational license for the full program is available for our students from Yacht Design School for $195.  This program is required. 


What You Will Receive With This Lesson
            This pair of lessons is in the process of a massive re-write at this time.  Once this is done, which may take some time, we hope to gradually add video tutorials covering the operation of "The Laminator" and "Scan&Solve".  We are equipped to produce these at present but for the moment will only be producing them as needed by individual students.  Eventually these should evolve into a complete package of tutorials for these programs.

What You Will Learn In These Lessons


Basic Materials Science

            The Internal Structure of Materials

            Stress Versus Strain
                            Tensile Strength

            Compression Strength

            Shear Strength

            Proportional Limit

            Elastic Limit

            Yield Strength

            Ultimate Strength

            Poisson’s Ratio



            Isotropic Versus Non-Isotropic Materials

Basic Structural Analysis

            Young’s Modulus of Elasticity and related Moduli

            Relating Material Constants


Moment of Inertia & Buckling

Polar Moment of Inertia & Torque

Section Modulus & Bending

Beam Theory

Stress and Deflection in Marine Structures

Panel Theory

                        Avoidance of Stress Concentration

                        Differences Between Isotropic and Non-Isotropic Materials

                        Fastenings & Joints

            Materials Properties

Fatigue Characteristics & Fatigue Limits

Safety Factors as Determined by Fatigue Limits & Analysis Limitations

Evaluating the Number of Significant Digits
                Explanation of Statics

Statics Versus Dynamics

Impact Studies


            Vector Analysis - Graphic

            Vector Analysis - Calculated

            Marine Environmental Factors

            Composite Structures
                        Additional Concepts Needed

                        Micromechanics of Composite Structures

                        Rule of Mixtures & Modified Rule of Mixtures

                        Composite Laminates Evaluation Programs

                        Introduction to Using “The Laminator”

                        Theory of Composite Beams

                        Theory of Composite Panels


                        To Measure Stress Versus Strain
                        For Tensile Strength

                        For Compression Strength

                        For Shear Strength

                        For Bending Strength & Stiffness

                        Determining Poisson’s Ratio

                        Determining Modulus of Elasticity in Bending

                        Special Considerations for Composites

                        Not Using Fully Distributed Load Testing & Why      

            Test Equipment 

                        Standardized Tests for Designers, Builders, and Surveyors

                        Sources of Materials & Equipment

            Real World Testing

            Proper and Improper Use of Structural Analysis & Testing in Vessel Design

            Development of Judgment
            A Broader Understanding of Structural Questions




                        Ease of Repair

                        Ease of Production

                        Fatigue Avoidance

            Design Methodology

                        Design Through Testing

                        Design Through Mathematical Models

                        Combining Analysis & Testing

Developing Minimum Standards for Hull Structures

            Minimum Strengths

            Minimum Stiffness

            Safety Factors by Material as Determined by Their Fatigue Limits

            Impact Criteria

            Why Linear Measurements Are Not the Way to Go

            Cube Root of the Displacement in Cubic Feet

            Cautions on the Limitations of Various Certification Societies

            Static Versus Dynamic Assumptions & Other Questions

Special Topics

            Multihull Beam Design          
                            Special Calculations in Exotic Keel Types
                            Submarine Design Basics as an Exercise

                            Foundry Work
                            Simple Machines
                            Ports & Windows

Types of Structures and Mathematical Solutions

            An Introduction to Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain

            Limitations of the Structural Analyses in This Lesson

            More Exotic Analysis Methods
                        Use of Differentiation & Integration in Achieving More Accurate Results

                        Finite Element Analysis Introduced

                        Introduction to Using “Scan&Solve™” Finite Element Analysis Program

            Information Sources


Lesson 12:

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