Yacht Design School

Course Outline

03/25/2006

This is a brief summary of some of the major topics covered in our course. Lessons one through 9 seem to require little revision and may be assumed to remain nearly the same over time. The later lessons are still being revised frequently as we learn more about the learning needs of various students. Generally new students may expect that these lessons will have changed in content somewhat by the time they get to them. The following information is from the title page of each lesson current to the above date.

**Lesson One - Introduction to Yacht Design
** Defining the Profession

How One Becomes a Designer

School's Philosophy & Approach to Testing and Grading

Use of the Basic Drafting Tools

Review of Basic Math

Review of Opportunities for Designers and Draftsmen

**Lesson Two - Preliminary Design
** Defining the Intended Use

Deciding on Type and Style

General Rules for Interiors and Human Proportions

Estimating Required Size

Roughing Out Profile, Deck Plan and Accommodations

Defining the Midsection

Choosing Displacement and Prismatic Coefficient

First Trial on Scantlings

First Trial on Ballast

First Trial on Sail Area and Engine Horsepower

Laws of Mechanical Similitude

Use of Splines, Spline Weights and the Planimeter

**Lesson Three "A" - Understanding Lines Drawings & Lofting**

Understanding Lines Drawings

Round Bottom Lines

Compromise Forms

Drawing Sequence

Fairing

Calculating Displacement

Pounds Per Inch Immersion

Approximate Moment to Alter Trim One Inch

The Table of Offsets

Lofting

Lines Development on Computers (introduced)

Computer Lofting and Cutting of Parts (introduced)

Future of On-Screen Design (introduced)

**Lesson Three "B" - Understanding Chine Lines Drawings, Lofting, & Surface
Expansion
**Flat Bottom Lines

Vee Bottom Lines

Developed Surface Lines - General, Cylindrical & Conic

Developed Surface Lines - Multi-Conic

Expansion of Developed Platea

Developed Surface Hulls in Rhino

Expansions in Rhino

**Lesson Four A - Theory & Practice of Developing Excellence in Hull Lines**

The Presumed Effect on Performance of Each Line Type

Problems in Judging Each Line Independently

Using Diagonals to End the Confusion

The Step by Step Procedure for Developing the Best Lines

Example of Hull Drawn Without Using Diagonals

Improvement of the Example Hull Using Diagonals to Control the Other
Lines

Mention of Lesson Five Model Making for Developing Lines

Examination of the Differences in Developing Planing Hulls

**Lesson Four B - Theory & Practice of Developing Excellence in Hull Lines -
Section Shape Considerations, Fairing, and Hull Resistance Reduction
** Section Shape and Initial Stability

Designing Chines to Avoid Cross Flow

Underbody Smoothness

Turbulence

Wetted Surface

Flow at or Near the Water Surface Versus Submerged Flow

Modeling Flow Over Surface Piercing and Near Surface Bodies

Fully Immersed Streamline Flow

Evaluation of Drag on Fully Submerged Streamlined Bodies

Proper Construction of Streamlined Bodies

Variable Prismatic Coefficient for Low to High Speeds as Boat Changes Trim

**Lesson Four C - Theory & Practice of Developing Excellence in Hull Lines -
Appendage Development and Fairing & Final Considerations in Developing Lines
** When Fillets Are Good and When They Are Not – A Subject
of Controversy

“Appropriate or Inappropriate”

Avoiding Foreign Object Drag in Bulb Keels

Intersection of Bulbs with Keels and Struts

Avoiding Drag in SWATH Hull Bulbs

Ultimate Result in Dealing with Bulb Problems

Bulbous Bows

Foil Lift

Choosing Spade Rudders, Skeg Hung Rudders, or Keel Hung Rudders Rationally

Avoidance of Laminar Flow Foils in Non-Dry Sailed Yachts

Avoidance of Laminar Flow Foils in Rudders

Mistake of Picking One Factor in Speed Production and Emphasizing It Beyond Reason

Distortions Introduced by the Racing Rules

Why We Devote So Many Lessons to Lines Characteristics

**Lesson Five - Model Making as a Design Aid**

Why Models are Helpful

The Hawks Nest Model

The Conventional Half Model

The True Designer’s Model

**Lesson Six - Flotation & Stability**

Flotation

Areas and Displacement by the Trapazoidal Rule

Areas and Displacement by Simpson's Rule

Moments

Center of Buoyancy, Longitudinal

Center of Buoyancy, Vertical

Center of Lateral Plane (measured & by paper methods)

Center of Waterplane Area

Longitudinal Center of Flotation

Pounds Per Inch Immersion (Kilograms Per Centimeter)

Prismatic Coefficient

Displacement to Length Ratio

Wetted Surface

Scantlings Numeral

Block Coefficient

Weight Estimate

Weights of Materials

Longitudinal Center of Gravity

Vertical Center of Gravity

Ballast Location & Weight

Figuring Center of Gravity

Calculating Upright Center of Buoyancy

**Lesson Six "B" - Stability**

Basic Concepts of Stability

Static Stability

Dynamic Stability

Metacentric Height as a Measure of Initial Stability

Finding the Heeled Center of Buoyancy for a Given Angle

Comparative Stability by the Wind Pressure Coefficient Method

Comparative Stability by the Dellenbaugh Angle Method

Stability Testing by Inclining Experiments

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia of a Waterplane about the Centerline

Moment to Alter Trim One Inch

Radius of Gyration

Free Surface Effects

**Lesson Seven - Artistry & Proportion in Design**

Part I.

Drafting Styling - Why we do it

Discussing the Conventions

Detailed Instructions on Producing Various Effects

Detail Drafting Techniques

Producing an Emotional Response in the Non-Technical Mind Through
Pictorial Elements

Part II.

Actual Styling Rules for Defining the Appearance of the Vessel

Bows and Sterns

Beauty in Curves and How to Find it

Weak versus Strong Curves

Interesting the Visual Portion of Brain with Proper Use of
Strengthening and Loosening Curves

Relating the Sheer to the Beam and Beam Distribution of the Vessel

Relating Sheer Heights at the Forward and Aft ends of the Load Water
Line

Relating the Sheer to the type of Ends

Relating the Sheer to the Emotional Response Desired

Relating the Sheer to the Type of Vessel

Relating the Sheer to the Service the Vessel Will See

The Difference Between the Appearance of the Sheer on Paper and the
Sheer in the Water

Drawing Sheers that Look Best in the Water

Sheer Expansion

**Lesson Eight - Plank on Frame Wood Construction**

Theory of the Method

Sawn Frame Principles

Bent Frame Principles

Laminated Frame Principles

Types of Fastenings and Their Uses

Specifications on Sizing Trunnels, Screws, Bolts, Rivits

Effect of Type of Fastenings on Construction Members

Single Planked Carvel

Double Planked Carvel

Strip Planked

Theory of the Caulked Seam

**Lesson Nine - Sheathed Strip & Cold Molded Construction**

Theory of the Method Sheathed Strip Construction

Theory of Cold Molded Construction

Problems of Compromise Methods

Practical Methods in Drawing Sheathed Strip and Cold Molded
Construction** **

**Lesson Ten - Steel & Aluminum Construction**

Recommended Practice

Chine Hulls

Developed Surface Hulls

Round Bilged Hulls

Design Practice for Ease of Maintenance and Repair in Steel Hulls

Design Practice for Ease of Maintenance and Repair in Aluminum Hulls

**Lesson Eleven - Fiberglass Construction**

Basic Engineering Questions in Fiberglass Construction Theory and
Practice

Industry Problems

Planning for Proper Repair and Problem Solving

The Solid Laminate Solution

The Hollow Fiberglass Frames Solution

The Wood & Epoxy Framed Solution

Cored Hull Questions

The Light Core and Designing for It

Honey Comb Core and Its Limitations in Practice

Softwood and Epoxy Cores

Limitations of Kevlar as a reinforcement

Limitations of Carbon Fiber

Testing laminates and Especially Cored Laminates

The Fallacy of Distributed Load Testing

Use of Cored Laminates in Interiors

**Lesson Twelve - Scantlings Rule Development & Engineering Testing**

Tensile Strength

Shear Strength

Compression

Buckling

Ductility

Stiffness

Modulus of Elasticity

Moment of Inertia & Buckling

Section Modulus & Bending

Relating the Above to Understand Strength

Fatigue Characteristics & Fatigue Limits

Marine Environmental Factors

Testing for Above Characteristics

Impact Studies

Vector Analysis, Graphic

Vector Analysis, Calculated

Submarine Design Basics as an Exercise

Finite Element Analysis

**
Lesson Thirteen - Basic Engineering Principles**

Calculations and Their Application

Functionality

Simplicity

Durability

Ease of Repair

Ease of Production

Avoidance of Stress Concentration

Fatigue Avoidance

Vector Analysis

Strength of Materials Tables

Information Sources

Cautions on the Limitations of Various Certification Societies

Foundry Work

Limitations of the Engineering in This Lesson

More Exotic Engineering

Finite Element Analysis

**Lesson Fourteen - Rig Design**

Understanding the Effects of Rating Rules

Understanding the Effects of Tradition

Basic Aerodynamic Principles

Basic Sail Design Principles

Conventional Stayed Rigs

Traditional Unstayed Mast Rules of Thumb

Designing Freestanding and Rotating Masts as Cantilevered Spars

Design Considerations for Carbon Fiber / Graphite Fiber Spars

Relating Rigs to Stability Calculations

Rig Types

Magnus Effect Design

**Lesson Fifteen - Powering**

Introduction to Resistance

General Theory of Resistance

Resistance in Sailing Vessels

Resistance in Displacement Power Vessels

Resistance in Planing & Other High Speed Form

Introduction to Powering

Horsepower – Displacement Speeds

Lift, Trim, and Powering in Non-Stepped and Stepped Planing
Powerboats

Calculation of Lift and Trim for
Planing Hulls

Refining Shape for Reasonable Motion

Designing to Avoid Chine Walking in
Waves

Weight Reduction

Effect of Deadrise Angles on Lift

Effect of Center of Gravity on Trim
and Lift

Over Reliance on Strakes

Interference of Marketing Personnel
in Naval Architectural Decisions

Special Considerations in Designing
Stepped Planing Hulls

Horsepower – Planing Speeds

Special Design Considerations Appropriate to Planing Speeds

Propeller Size and Pitch

Shaft Size

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Types

Electric Drives

Rational Matching of Vessel Use and Power

Understanding the Basic Math of Internal Combustion Engines

**Lesson Sixteen - Accommodations Design Principles in Detail**

Reference to the Tables Used in Developing the Preliminaries

Use of Space

Avoidance of Affectation and Complication

Functionality

Suitability to Use

Cruising Boat Interiors

Workboat Interiors

Yacht Interiors

Planing Hull and Racing Sailboat Interiors

Choice of Materials

Choice of Construction

**Lesson Seventeen - Equipment Specifications and Sources**

Deck and Rig Hardware

Fixtures for the Living Quarters

Electronics

Hydraulics

Source List

Publications List

**Lesson Eighteen - Business Aspects of Custom & Stock Designing**

Setting Fees for Custom Designs

Setting Fees for Stock Plans

Setting Fees for Publications

Promotion Through Technical Writing for the Yachting Press

Promotion Through the World Wide Web

Advertising

Self Publishing of Technical Books and Design Catalogs.

Customer Support

Lesson Nineteen - Reserved for Future Use

**
Lesson Twenty - Creating A Firm to Design, Build, Store and Repair**

Why You May Want to Avoid This

Why We Teach It Anyway

Advantage of Each Aspect Feeding the Others

The Nature of the Boatbuilding and Repair Industry

Smoothing Out Economic Hills and Valleys

Setting Hourly Rates

Figuring the Breakeven Point

The Marketing Plan

Buildings

Equipment

Financing Differently Than Other Businesses

Taking the Time to Do it Right

Developing the Business Plan